States of matter at low temperatures.
II-1 The phenomenon of superfluidity. Bose-Einstein condensation. Liquid helium in the superfluid phase. Theory of the two fluids. Landau theory: critical velocity, phonons and rotons. Vorticity. Bogoliubov theory for interacting bosons.
II-2 - The phenomenon of superconductivity. Transition to zero resistivity, Meissner effect, critical magnetic field, specific heat. Analogies with the phenomenon of superfluidity. London equations. Thermodynamic considerations. Superconductors of the first type and
of the second type.
II-3 - Microscopic theory of superconduttivity. Electron-phonon interaction. Attractive interaction between electrons. Cooper pairs. Theory of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS). The ground state, the definition of the energy gap. Excited states. Calculation at finite temperature. Bogoliubov theory: equations in the presence of external fields. Quantization
of the magnetic flux.
II-4 - Phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau theory.
Free energy of the superconductor, Ginzburg-Landau equations and relation
with the London equations. Characteristic length. Ginzburg parameter. Josephson effect.
(G.Grosso, G.Pastori-Parravicini)"Solid State Physics  (A.L.Fetter, J.D.Walecka)"Quntum Theory of Many Particles"  (P.G.De Gennes)"Superconductivity of Metals and Alloys"